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flag of Romania THE FLAG OF ROMANIA The flag of Romania is a tricolour: red, yellow and blue. It has not undergone many or major changes in the course of history. Only the distribution of the colours (in point of proportion and position) changed to a certain extent, being made equal after the revolution of 1848 when, under the spur of the French revolutionary spirit, many states in Europe adopted as their national flag the dimensionally standardized three-colour banner. Sigillography attests that at certain historical stages, the Romanian flag had the three colours arranged horizontally with the red in the upper part, the yellow in the middle and the blue in the lower part. Also, the proportion of the colors was not the same as it is now (33% for each colour). Basically, however, the three colours are to be found in banners dating back to the time of Michael the Brave and even Stephen the Great. The Romanian tricolour (the colours red, yellow and blue are to be found also in Romania's coat of arms) resisted, as a symbol, even after the advent of communism in this country, when the entire heraldry of the USSR's satellites was reduced to a caricature.
The flag of Romania has the colours placed vertically as follows: blue (hoist), yellow (middle) and red (fly). The width of each colour band is one-third of the length. The blue is cobalt, the yellow is chrome and the red vermillion.
Parliament House - Romania
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The National Anthem of ROMANIA
The lyrics of the national anthem of Romania belong to Andrei Muresanu (1816-1863), a Romantic poet, journalist, translator, a genuine tribune of the times marked by the 1848 Revolution. The music was composed by Anton Pann (1796-1854), a poet and ethnographer, a man of great culture, a singer and author of music textbooks. Andrei Muresanu's poen Un rasunet, written and published during the 1848 Revolution, found the adequate music within a few days, as the anthem was sung for the first time on June 29, 1848 at Ramnicu Valcea (in Wallachia the revolution had broken out on June 11). The poem became an anthem under the title Desteapta-te, romane!, and spontaneously earned recognition owing to its energetic and mobilizing message. Since 1848,Desteapta-te, romane! had been a song dear to the Romanians, giving them courage at crucial moments, during the Independence War (1877-1878), just as during World War I. In the moments of crisis after August 23, 1944 when, after the state coup, Romania turned against Hitler's Germany and then participated in the war along with the Allies, this anthem was spontaneously sung by everyone and was aired on the national radio, inspiring the whole country. The same happened on December 22, 1989, at the time of the anticommunist revolution; the anthem rose from the streets, bracing the huge masses of citizens, dispelling the fear of death and uniting a whole people in the lofty feelings of the moment. Thus, its institution as a state anthem came by itself, upon the tremendous pressure of the demonstrators.
THE NATIONAL COAT OF ARMS
In Romania, the preoccupation with a representative, synthetic coat-of-arms dates back to the 19th century. It led to the formation of a fine team of heraldry specialists rallying outstanding Romanian scientific figures. As the State Archives were set up and sigillography studies developed, the heraldry experts identified the coats of arms of districts, provinces, the heraldic bearings of the big landowners, a.o.. After 1859, the question of a representative coat-of-arms arose again. In 1863, the solution was found of joining the ancient, traditional symbols of Wallachia (the golden eagle with cross) and Moldavia (the auroch with a star between its horns). Later, Romania's heraldry commission proposed a synthetic coat of arms that combined the traditional symbols of all the Romanian provinces: Wallachia, Moldavia, Bukovina, Transylvania, Maramures, Crisana, Banat and Oltenia. The coat-of-arms was adopted by the Government of Romania and was in use until 1921 when, following the great Union of December 1, 1918, the new coat-of-arms of Greater Romania was devised, with the addition of the symbols instituted in 1872: the insignia of the House of Hohenzollern, the crown of Romania and face-to-face dolphins with their tails up, symbolizing Dobrogea.
Romania's coat-of-arms has as a central element the golden eagle with a cross. Traditionally, this eagle appears in the arms of the Arges county, the town of Pitesti and the town of Curtea de Arges. It stands for the "nest of the Basarabs," the nucleus around which Wallachia was organized, the province that determined the historical fate of Romania. The shield on which it is placed is azure, symbolizing the sky. The eagle holds in its talons the insignia of sovereignty: a scepter and a saber, the later reminding of Moldavia's ruler. On the bird's chest there is a quartered escutcheon with the symbols of the historical Romanian provinces, as well as two dolphins reminding of the country's Black Sea Coast.
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