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Material finds attest to man's existence on present-day Romania's territory as far back as 2 million years (Bugiulesti, Valcea County). The originality of the cultural areas, related to the other European pre-historical cultures can be seen in the art of clay works (the painted pottery from the Cris region, from Turdas, Cucuteni or the zoomorphic and anthropomorphic figures - to mention only the Thinker, - discovered at Hamangia-Cernavoda). The tartaria clay tablets (incised pictographic motives) testify to an early archaic writing - the first in Europe - around 4000 B.C., contemporary with Sumerian writing.
The Geto-Dacians were the descendents of these ancient civilizations
In the 1st century B.C. Dacian King Burebista unified all the Dacian tribes under his scepter, laying the foundations of the Kingdom of Dacia. This powerful formulation had its political and religious center in Transylvania, at Sarmizegetusa. in the early 2nd century A.D., the Dacian state fully flourished under the rule of King Decebal (87-106). Later on, the Roman imperial armies led by Emperor Trajan (98-117) conquered it (A.D. 106). Dacia turned into a Roman province and was colonized with with Roman and Romanized people. Thus, the Geto-Dacians got Romanized in their turn. After the withdrawal of the Roman army and administration south of the Danube (271-275), following one millennium, they were the neighbors of the Roman Empire and then of the Eastern Roman Empire (subsequently the Byzantine Empire) that used to hold many bridgeheads north of Danube. The ethnogenesis of the Romanian people ended in the 17th century. During the first millennium, waves of migratory people (Goths, Huns, Gepidae, Avars, Slavs, Bulgarians, Cumanians, Petchenegs, etc.) crossed the territory of Romania exerting a transitory domination that, more often than not resulted in their assimilation by the native population.
Parliament House - Romania The Romanians were born Christian; the process of Romanization took place concurrently with the process of Christianization both through the agency of Saint Andrew and through that of holy fathers who took refuge on or passed across Romanian lands. After the 1054 Great Schism of the Christian Church, they preserved the Orthodox rite. State organization, attested to in writings, goes back to the 10th century. The pre-state bodies politic in Transylvania were ruled by Dukes, princes or voivodes like Gelu, Glad, Menumorut, Ahtum, or by jupani or voivodes in Moldavia, Wallachia and Dobruja: Dimitrie, Gheorghe, Sestlay, Satza, Roman, a.o. (11th-12th century). Documents then attest to 13th century large pre-state bodies politic under the leadership of voivodes Litovoi, loan, Farcas and Seneslau. In the 14th century, south of the Carpathian's, Basarab I (1324-1352) unified the existing bodies politic laying the foundations of the big Voivodate of Wallachia, while Bogdan I (1359-1365) founded the big Voivodate of Moldavia to the east. In the 14th century, however, the Ottoman Empire imposed its suzerainty upon the three Romanian Principalities that continued however to enjoy a broad autonomy. It was the unity of kin and language of all the Romanians, the national awareness that was spreading throughout the romanian space that made possible Michael the Brave's deed.
Parliament House - Romania The ideas of the French revolution, entwined with native realities, led to the emergence of a trend of novel political ideas in the Romanian Principalities. Under these circumstances, a social and national revolution headed by Tudor Vladimirescu broke out in 1821. Although quashed by the ottoman armies, the uprising had a significant political fallout; the Phanariot regime was abolished, and ruling princes were once more native Romanians. Modern governing and administrative principles were introduced. The brisk development of the market economy ran counter to the feudal privileges protected by the Ottoman suzerainty in the Danubian Principalities, and by the Hapsburg Crown in Transylvania, which triggered a revolutionary outburst of 1848 in all the three Romanian Principalities. the 1848 revolution - that had a deep national and anti-feudal character - was first stifled in Moldavia and Wallachia (in 1848) and then in Transylvania by the concerted action of the Tsarist, Ottoman and hapsburg armies.
Under the 1867 agreement between Budapest and Vienna, known as the "Austrian-Hungarian dualism", the whole principality of Transylvania fell under Hungarian domination, its century old atonomy being annulled. In 1775, Bukovina was torn off from the body of Romania and fell under the rule of the Hapsburg Empire following an understanding with the Ottoman Empire. There too, the Romanian majority population was persecuted, and attempts were made to denationalize it.
Romania's involvement in First World War had one sole goal: the making of national unity; Carol I's successor, King Ferdinand I (1914-1927) was one of its advocates. The fall of the two multinational Empires - the Austrian-Hungarian and the Tsarist ones - created the premises for the Romanians in Bessarabia, Bukovina and Transylvania to choose in full freedom their destiny. So, they decided with union with Romania. On April 9, November 28, and December 1, 1918, Bessarabia, Bukovina and Transylvania proceeded to unite to their mother country.
However, in 1939 the Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact was signed, and Article 3 of its secret additional Protocol made direct reference to the territorial disintegration of Romania.
As a result of the right to free expression and association, the media gained unprecedented impetus, so that Romania currently boasts the largest number of publications, private radio & TV stations in the East European Countries. Romania is a member of the Council of Europe (1994) and of NATO (2004). On April 25, 2005, this country signed in Luxembourg the Treaty of Accession to the EU in the perspective of becoming full member on January 1, 2007.
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